Eating, Diet, & Nutrition for Kidney Stones
Introduction to kidney stones
The kidneys excrete the end products of metabolism like the uric acid, oxalate, and phosphate from the ingested food. These are excreted along with the minerals like sodium, calcium, and magnesium. Calcium compounds remain in a solution state in the acidic urine but precipitate in the alkaline urine.
The calcium oxalate compound always remains in supersaturated state irrespective of the state of the urine. The crystalloids remain in solution despite the supersaturating state. This is due to the presence of the normal colloids. A stone is formed if those crystals precipitate and are bound by a mucous matrix.
The influencing factors for the formation of the kidney stones are concentration, reaction, colloids, inhibitors, and nucleus. If the urine concentration is big then there is more probability for the formation of the stones and if the concentration is less then there is only a slim chance. The phosphate crystals precipitate in the alkaline urine.
The colloids help to keep the crystals in a supersaturated state. However, the presence of the abnormal colloids initializes the stone formation. Inhibitor substances like magnesium and citrate when reduced has known to cause the formation of stones. For the formation of stones, a microprotein is very essential.
Dietetic tips for kidney stone management
The probability for the formation of kidney stones lies throughout the entire life. It is only a gradual process and proper diet should be taken and adequate fluid should be always taken. The basic idea on which the dietetic management of kidney stones is planned is to provide sufficient fluids like water, coconut water, sherbet, barley water, fruit juices and aerated water. This is given in order to give ensure that there is the passage of 200 ml of urine per day.
The adequate intake of fluids solves most of the problems. It dilutes the urine and hence reducing the probability of formation of kidney stones. For the dietetic management of kidney stones, there are no well-established food diets. Although there is no restriction for the food substances, reducing the intake of foods that contain calcium is advisable.
The foods that are to be avoided in the diet are beans, cauliflower, milk and milk products, figs, eggs, beef, cashew nuts, cocoa, chocolates, custard apple, tea, strawberries, tomato, fish, salmon, kidneys, liver, meat, sweetbreads, and potatoes.
The following measures can be followed in order to reduce the probability of getting kidney stones. Take adequate fluid that ensures at least 2000 ml of urine per day. The urinary infections if found must be treated at the earliest. Decrease the dietary calcium. Restrict the protein intakes to 40 to 50 g a day.