Diet for Kidney Failure
Kidney failure – An introduction
Acute kidney failure is a condition in which the kidney fails to regulate the end products of protein metabolism which results in the accumulation of nitrogenous waste products in the body. This disease is often accompanied with the suppression of urine. This condition is called as anuria.
In anuria, the nitrogenous content in the blood increases daily and also the levels of serum potassium. This rise in the potassium levels is due to the release from the breakdown of glycogens. The cause of death in anuria is the potassium intoxication due to the treatment to stimulate urination.
Acute kidney failure can be caused due to the pre renal or renal or post renal factors. The pre renal kidney failure can b caused by decreased blood volume and decreased blood flow. The renal failure may occur in connection with acute glomerulonephritis, acute tabular necrosis and blood loss in pregnancy, crush injuries or the flow of kidney damaging toxins.
The post renal kidney failure may happen when there is an obstruction in the flow of urine, kidney stones or enlarged prostate. Chronic renal failure is another way by which the kidney fails to do its proper function.
Diet for kidney failure
The dietetic management for the kidney failure is important to make a full recovery within six or seven weeks. The calorific intake for the patient should have a minimum level of 700 to 1000 kcal per day. Protein containing foods are completely avoided as they possess the danger of raising the blood nitrogen level. However, if the person goes for dialysis, he can be permitted to intake about 40 g of protein a day.
Fats are the main source of energy and can be given in large amounts. Carbohydrates also supply energy and hence a minimum amount of 100 g of carbohydrates are supplied in order to reduce the tissue protein breakdown. Glucose solution can be given orally or can be administered using nasogastric tubes.
During kidney failure, potassium is lost through the urine. This lost amount is measured and is compensated by giving potassium diets or supplements. Phosphorous is another mineral by which the absorption capability decreases. It is impossible to avoid the dietary phosphorous as most of the foods contain them.
The food stuffs that are allowed during the acute and chronic renal failure are milk and milk products, ice creams, cooked rice preparations like fried rice, pulao and normal rice, rice products like dosa, idli and dhokla, egg preparations like omelet, boiled egg and egg flip, some fresh vegetables and soup items. The fluid intake should be given after carefully calculating the amount of urine excreted and other losses.